The trace in Scripture that leads to the worship of the ‘image’ of the beast:
HCSB (Revelation 13:14-15) 14 … telling those who live on the earth to make an image of the beast who had the sword wound yet lived. 15 ….so that the image of the beast could bothspeak and cause whoever would not worship the image of the beast to be killed.
In the previous article we talked about the idolatry in Israel and Judah and about the little horn (or king) who had eyes and a mouth speaking pompous words. According to Daniel 11:21 a despicable king will arise; “And in his place shall arise a vile person, to whom they will not give the honor of royalty; but he shall come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue.”
The false prophet will not be a real king of the last world power, the US, but will have (kingdom) power.
The theme of this writing is; Islam, the antichrist or false prophet and the exodus from Egypt.
In the previous article we have seen that the false prophet has affinity with Islam. (see the
explanation of Daniel 11: 38-39) What characterizes Islam?
Islam, the submission or surrender to Allah
Islam is a monotheistic religion with Allah as their god and was originated around 600 AD.
Mohammed is the messenger of god. According to Islam, the Qur’an was revealed to
Mohammed by the angel Jibriel (Ariel) on behalf of God.
According to Islam it is a religion in the line of Abraham, who had to (almost) sacrifice his
eldest son Ishmael, son with the slave Hagar.
According to the Bible, however, Abraham had to (almost) sacrifice Isaac, the son with his
Ishmael is considered as an ancestor of Mohammed in Islam.
So according to them, the Promised Land must belong to his descendants, not to those of
Isaac. But this Paul writes in the letter to the Christians in Galatia:
NKJV (Galatians 4: 22-26, 29-29) 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons: the one by a bondwoman, the other by a freewoman. 23 But he who was of the bondwoman was born according to the flesh, and he of the freewoman through promise, 24 which things are symbolic. For these are the two covenants: the one from Mount Sinai which gives birth to bondage, which is Hagar– 25 for this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, and corresponds to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children– 26 but the Jerusalem above is free, which is the mother of us all…..28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 29 But, as he who was born according to the flesh then persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, even so it is now.
If Ishmael stands for the Muslim community and Isaac for the Jewish / Christian community, then the persecution of Christians by Muslims in verse 29 is foretold. And as far as verse 25 is concerned, ‘Mount Sinai in Arabia’, we will return to that later in the article.
Gods and goddesses were worshiped in the holy places in Arabia, as with the Kaaba in
Mecca. The Kaaba, a black stone, was originally dedicated to the god Hoebal. Hundreds of
images of Arab idols were around and on the Kaaba.
According to researchers Sjoberg and Hall, the ancient Sumerians worshiped the moon god Allah – the god of the rising moon – one of the gods in Mecca. (Mark Hall, A Study of the Sumerian Moon god, Sin, PhD., 1985, University of Pennsylvania)
(for support see also: http://www.nccg.org/islam/Islam01-Allah.html)
The archaeological evidence shows that the worship of the moon god was the most widely
practiced religion in Mesopotamia (see also the stone tablets from Ur in the first article).
In 630 AD, after the capture of Mecca by Mohammed, the images of the other Arab gods
were destroyed and the building became an Islamic sanctuary.
‘Allahu Akbar’ means something like: ‘Allah is the greatest’. (god)
As part of the ‘hajj’, the pilgrimage to Mecca, the Muslims must walk around the Kaaba seven times. The Kaaba is a black stone in the form of a cube.
According to the second Sura of the Quran, a Muslim must always pray in the direction of the Kaaba, so in the direction of the black stone in Mecca.
The symbol used in Islam, the rising moon, is connected to Ramadan, the month of fasting each year, and that begins with the sight of the new moon.
With the death and succession of Mohammed the first schism occurred within the Muslim
community, the Ummah, and two main denominations arose within Islam, Sunni and Shiism. Some denominations can be distinguished within Sunni:
Salafism, a denomination that wishes to return to pure Islam and follow Mohammed as much as possible. The Salafi are the ‘pious ancestors’ during the first three generations of
Wahabism, the state religion of Saudi Arabia, is similar to Salafism.
We wrote about the position of women in the previous article. (Daniel 11:37)
There are three revealed books mentioned in the Quran:
The Tawrat (Torah) revealed to Musa (Moses),
The Zabur (Psalms) revealed to Dawud (David)
The Injil (Gospel of Luke) revealed to Isa (Jesus)
(Sura 5:46) 46 And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah.
The Injil, the Gospel of Luke, differs profoundly with the Quran, whether Jesus is the Son of
God. Whether He died for us and whether His sacrifice means salvation for us.
According to Islam theologians, the Torah, Psalms and Gospel of Luke are falsified.
However, not according to the old manuscripts found in the Dead Sea scrolls in Qumran when these are compared with contemporary manuscripts. The Hebrew Scriptures were very carefully copied by the Jewish soferim (scribes).
This suggested forgery is also not in accordance with the described fulfillments:
NKJV (Matthew 26: 52-54) 52 But Jesus said to him, “Put your sword in its place, for all who take the sword will perish by the sword. 53 Or do you think that I cannot now pray to My Father, and He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of angels? 54 How then could the Scriptures be fulfilled, that it must happen thus?”
NKJV (2Timothy 3: 16-17) 16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.
For Muslims only the Koran is pure; studying the other ‘revealed’ books is not encouraged
because of the accusation of forgery.
These books therefore have little meaning for most Muslims.
Scriptures in the Quran about Isa (Jesus):
(Sura 19: 34-35) 34 Such (was) Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth, about which they (vainly) dispute. 35 It is not befitting to (the majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it, “Be”, and it is.
(Sura 19: 88-92) 88 They say: “(Allah) Most Gracious has begotten a son!” 89 Indeed ye have put forth a thing most monstrous! 90 At it the skies are ready to burst, the earth to split asunder, and the mountains to fall down in utter ruin, 91 That they should invoke a son for (Allah) Most Gracious. 92 For it is not consonant with the majesty of (Allah) Most Gracious that He should beget a son.
(Sura 9:30) 30 The Jews call ‘Uzair (Ezra) a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah’s curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth!
(Sura 4: 157-158) 157 That they said (in boast), “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah”;- but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not. 158 Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
(Sura 5: 110) 110 Then will Allah say: “O Jesus the son of Mary! Recount My favour to thee and to thy mother. Behold! I strengthened thee with the holy spirit, so that thou didst speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught thee the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel and behold! thou makest out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My leave, and thou breathest into it and it becometh a bird by My leave, and thou healest those born blind, and the lepers, by My leave. And behold! thou bringest forth the dead by My leave. And behold! I did restrain the Children of Israel from (violence to) thee when thou didst show them the clear Signs, and the unbelievers among them said: ‘This is nothing but evident magic.’
According to researchers, the story of the bird of clay comes from the Gnostics, certainly not from the Bible. Gnosticism – gnosis means knowledge – was a religion that originated in Jewish-Christian movements in the first and second centuries after Christ.
The Injil concerns the Gospel of Luke with custom names.
Other gospels from the Bible are not mentioned in the Quran.
(Injil 9:21) 21 Isa strictly warned his disciples not to tell anyone. “The Son of Man must suffer many things,” he said, “and be rejected by the elders, the head priests, and the scholars of religion. And he will be killed, but on the third day he will come back to life.” 35 Then, from the cloud a voice spoke: “This is my Son, my Chosen! Listen to him!” 36 When the voice finished, Isa was there alone. In the days that followed, his disciples were silent about all this, not telling anyone what they had seen.
(Injil 18:31) 31 Isa took the twelve emissaries aside and said, “Listen, we’re going up to al- Quds (Jerusalem), and all the prophecies written by the prophets about the Son of Man will come true. 32 He will be handed over to the pagans, mocked, insulted, and spit upon. 33 They will flog him and kill him. But on the third day he will return to life.”
(Injil 22: 19-20) 19 Then he took some bread, thanked Allah for it, broke it in pieces, and gave them to the disciples, saying, “This is my body given for you. Eat this in remembrance of me.” 20 After the meal he took a full cup and said, “This cup is the new covenant established in my blood shed for you.
(Injil 23:32) 32 With him they also led away two criminals for execution. 33 When they arrived at the place called the Skull, they crucified him there. They also crucified the two criminals, one on his right and one on his left.
So their Gospel of Luke (Injil) does indeed teach that Jesus is the Son of God, that Jesus died for us, that Jesus institutes the remembrance of his death and that His sacrifice – for those who believe in Him – gives hope and means salvation.
According to the Qur’an, however, Jesus did not die for us, Jesus did not make a great
sacrifice, but Jesus was only a messenger.
NKJV (1 John 2: 22-23) 22 Who is a liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist who denies the Father and the Son. 23 Whoever denies the Son does not have the Father either…
And this is what the Bible says about ‘a different gospel’ of an angel: (like Jibriel to Mohammed)
NKJV (Galatians 1: 6-8) 6 I marvel that you are turning away so soon from Him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel, 7 which is not another; but there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the gospel of Christ. 8 But even if we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed.
The golden rock dome on the temple mountain (Mount Moriah), the place where the temple
or house of YHWH stood, contains various inscriptions on the inside, such as the following offensive inscription:
(Sura 19:35) 35 It is not befitting to (the majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it, “Be”, and it is.
Furthermore, the many ruthless verses (against non-Muslims) in the Qur’an and Hadith are very similar to preparing Muslims for a literal confrontation and struggle (Jihad) with
unbelievers for them, in imitation of Mohammed and his followers. (Qu’ran 2: 194, 8:40,
8:65, 9:29, 9:73, 9: 123, 61: 4)
All people are created in God’s image and made in the likeness of God (Gen. 1: 26-27) and
every human being can fill his heart in freedom, but according to the Bible never with hate
towards others. Not even with the widely used excuse: ‘It is the will of Allah’
According to Islamic theologians, a Muslim who is falling away of the faith deserves the
death penalty pronounced by a court fatwa.
Islam knows no change or new ideas, only the oral presentations of the Qur’an in the way that according to them was passed on to Mohammed.
Islam is based on a powerful social control with literal honor killings.
Nevertheless, Christians will make great efforts to reach Muslims of good will with the good news and tell them about the hope for eternal life on the basis of Jesus’ sacrifice, as promised by Jesus. (John 6:54)
What do we all know now of the false prophet, THE antichrist of the last hour:
In the previous article we have clearly identified the little horn who had eyes and a mouth
speaking pompous words as the false prophet. When we collect all information about him:
- He comes as a despicable man who is not given royal dignity (Dan. 11:21)
- He will seize the kingdom power through flattery (Dan. 11:21)
- He begins as an insignificant king, a little horn (Dan. 7: 8)
- He has a mouth full of pompous words and blasphemy. (Dan.7: 8)
- He is a false Messiah with the lies of Satan (Rev. 13:11)
- He will come as king when the falling away has reached its fullness (Dan.8: 23, 2 Thess. 2: 3)
- He will exalt himself above all that is called God (Dan. 8:25, Dan. 11:36, 2Thess. 2:4)
- After then, he will manifest his appearance great as ‘king’ (Dan. 7:20, Dan.11:37)
- He exercises all authority of the current world power, the USA, before its eyes (Rev. 13:12, 17:12)
- He will do great signs, such as fire from heaven, to deceive the people (Rev.13:13)
- As a false prophet, he will differ from the kings who had been before him (Dan. 7:24)
- He will deny both Jesus and the Father YHWH (Dan. 11:37, 1 John 2:22)
- He will have sympathy for Islam and will treat women subordinately (Dan.11:37)
- He will honor the god of the fortresses = the god of false reasoning = Allah (Dan. 11:38)
- He will set up false reasoning through the Qur’an of the Mesopotamian god
- Allah (Dan. 11:39)
- He will give land to those who acknowledge him, it is an extension of Islam (Dan. 11:39)
- He will seek to introduce Sharia laws with their own time or calendar (Dan. 7:25)
- He tells those who live on earth that they have to make an image for the beast that became alive again. (Rev. 13:14)
- He will make that ‘image’ viable. (Rev. 13:15)
- He will kill all those who do not worship the image of the beast. (Rev.13: 15)
- He forces everyone to receive the mark in order to buy or sell (Rev. 13: 16-17, Dan. 11:31)
- He is the initiator of the new global money system (Rev. 13:17)
- He has many resources available (compare Rev. 13:18 with 1 Kings 10: 14, 15)
- He will ensnare Christians by flatteries and by deception (Dan. 11:32, 1 John 4: 1-3)
- He will persecute faithful Christians (Dan. 11:32) (Luke 21:12)
- Satan will be serving THE false prophet in the last hour (Dan. 8:24) (Rev.13:11)
The false prophet will soon present himself with great power in a ‘special place’ to do his special idolatrous signs and to exalt himself. This will also be the basis for the mark and
where the cryptocurrency will be issued in order to buy or sell.
Another important question concerns the mountain Horeb or Sinai
There are two mountains in Scripture that deserve great respect, these are Mount Moriah, the mountain where God’s temple stood and Mount Sinai (or Horeb), where God appeared to Moses.
Mount Sinai is very decisive in the follow-up story about the false prophet with his idolatry.
The oldest maps locate the country Midian (or Madian) in the northwest corner of what is
nowadays Saudi Arabia, east of the Gulf of Aqaba.
About 3500 years ago, Moses had to flee Egypt after killing an Egyptian:
NKJV (Exodus 2:11) 11 Now it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went out to his brethren and looked at their burdens. And he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his brethren.
NKJV (Exodus 2:15) 15 When Pharaoh heard of this matter, he sought to kill Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh and dwelt in the land of Midian;…
Egypt and its territory would no longer have been safe for Moses. He would not have fled to
the Sinai Peninsula, where the Sinai desert is located, because there, the Pharaoh of Egypt had several mines and military posts.
Moses went all the way from Egypt to the land of Midian east of the Gulf of Aqaba:
In Midian, Moses met the daughters of Jethro, the Midianite, by a well.
Afterward, Moses married Zipporah, the daughter of the priest Jethro.
NKJV (Exodus 3: 1-2,5) 1 Now Moses was tending the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian. And he led the flock to the back of the desert, and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. 2 And the Angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire from the midst of a bush. So he looked, and behold, the bush was burning with fire, but the bush was not consumed…… 5 Then He said, “Do not draw near this place. Take your sandals off your feet, for the place where you stand is holy ground.”
After 40 years, while guarding the herd of his father-in-law, Moses was in the vicinity of Mount Horeb. Moses was then sent out to deliver the Israelites from Egypt with God’s help, to return to the same mountain:
NKJV (Exodus 3:12) 12 So He said, “I will certainly be with you. And this shall be a sign to you that I have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God on this mountain.“
NKJV (Exodus 4:19) 19 And the Lord said to Moses in Midian, “Go, return to Egypt; for all the men who sought your life are dead.”
Eventually, the Israelites were allowed to leave Egypt and were on their way to Mount Sinai:
ESV (Exodus 12: 37-38) 37 And the people of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children. 38 A mixed multitude also went up with them, and very much livestock, both flocks and herds.
These were more than 1 million Israelites, a group mixed multitude and a huge number of
NKJV (Exodus 13: 21) 21 And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so as to go by day and night.
Moses knew the path to Midian from his flight forty years earlier, but God decided that the
Israelites would turn to take a different path. A power struggle would follow:
NKJV (Exodus 14: 1-4,7) 1 Now the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 “Speak to the children of Israel, that they turn and camp before Pi Hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baal Zephon; you shall camp before it by the sea. 3 For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, ‘They are bewildered by the land; the wilderness has closed them in.’ 4 Then I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, so that he will pursue them; and I will gain honor over Pharaoh and over all his army, that the Egyptians may know that I am the Lord.” And they did so….. 7 Also, he took six hundred choice chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt with captains over every one of them.
The Israelites were completely enclosed by steep mountains on the sides, the sea in front of them and the Egyptian army behind them, a dead end.
It seemed a hopeless situation and the Israelites were very angry with Moses:
NKJV (Exodus 14:12) 12 Is this not the word that we told you in Egypt, saying, ‘Let us alone that we may serve the Egyptians?’ For it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than that we should die in the wilderness.”
On the left the path that Moses knew, on the right the path that was most likely taken.
The new path was a dry drainage or river bed from the surrounding mountains.
On the above mentioned headland the Israelites stood with their livestock, it seemed a
The road to the sea is a gorge or wadi. The Gulf of Aqaba has a reef of more than 1500m
deep, but between Pi Hahiroth and Baal Zephon (Ex.14: 2) there is a sandbank that is much less deep.
NKJV (Exodus 14: 19-22) 19 And the Angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud went from before them and stood behind them. 20 So it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel. Thus it was a cloud and darkness to the one, and it gave light by night to the other, so that the one did not come near the other all that night. 21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea into dry land, and the waters were divided. 22 So the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea on the dry ground, and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.
HCSB (Psalms 78:13) 13 He split the sea and brought them across; the water stood firm like a wall.
One of the most impressive events of all time, almost every Christian knows the end:
NKJV (Exodus 14: 25,28) 25 And He took off their chariot wheels, so that they drove them with difficulty; and the Egyptians said, “Let us flee from the face of Israel, for the Lord fights for them against the Egyptians.”… 28 Then the waters returned and covered the chariots, the horsemen, and all the army of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them. Not so much as one of them remained.
The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus wrote; Mount Sinai is the highest mountain in the
vicinity of the city of Al Bad. The city of Al Bad was the city of Jethro, the father-in-law of
Paul wrote in Galatians 4:25 about the location of Mount Sinai; “for this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia…” Also according to Paul, Mount Sinai was in Arabia, which is now called Saudi Arabia.
Paul had his education by the respected Jewish theologian Gamaliel and knew the Scriptures 1 Kings 10:15, 2 Chronicles 9:14, Isaiah 21:13 and Ezekiel 27:21, in which Arabia is clearly described with their kings, the Dedanites and the princes of Kedar.
When we search for the highest mountain in the Midian region, we will find Jebel al-Lawz,
which has a height of 2580 m. Jebel al-Lawz means ‘the mountain of laws’.
Locals call the mountain Jebel Musa, the mountain of Moses.
From the crossing, the people went via Mara (with the bitter water) towards Elim:
NKJV (Exodus 15: 27) 27 Then they came to Elim, where there were twelve wells of water and seventy palm trees; so they camped there by the waters.
NKJV (Exodus 16:1) 1 And they journeyed from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came to the Wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and (mountain) Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after they departed from the land of Egypt.
A researcher has followed the route to Jebel al-Lawz from the above-mentioned crossing and counted the sources of Elim, according to him there are still 12 wells.
NKJV (Exodus 19:18) 18 Now Mount Sinai was completely in smoke, because the Lord
descended upon it in fire. Its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole
mountain quaked greatly.
In the foreground of the picture an (idolatrous) altar made by people, most likely where the
golden calf stood on. We will come back to this later.
According to some researchers, the Horeb is the name of the region, which could explain that the cleft rock is several kilometers away from Mount Sinai.
NKJV (Exodus 17: 6) 6 Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock in Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink.” And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.
NKJV (Psalms 78: 15-16) 15 He split the rocks in the wilderness, And gave them drink in
abundance like the depths. 16 He also brought streams out of the rock, And caused waters to run down like rivers.
In real sight, it is a colossal rock.
The erosion of the stones through the water is clearly visible, here a powerful water stream has filled a large basin. (picture right)
The altar of the golden calf, with inscriptions of Egyptian cattle:
The Israelites ended up in the desert near Mount Sinai and stayed before the mountain for
about a year:
NKJV (Exodus 19: 2) 2 For they had departed from Rephidim, had come to the Wilderness of Sinai, and camped in the wilderness. So Israel camped there before the mountain.
Underwater discoveries of the passage after 3500 years, wheels and axles of chariots. The wheel on the right is gilded or covered with a golden layer so that coral does not grow on it:
The passage is marked by columns from the time of Solomon, on the side of Saudi Arabia the pillar has been replaced by a base plate:
The cave of Elijah in Mount Horeb, when he had to flee from Jezebel; middle of the picture:
NKJV (1 Kings 19: 8-9) 8 So he arose, and ate and drank; and he went in the strength of that food forty days and forty nights as far as Horeb, the mountain of God. 9 And there he went into a cave, and spent the night in that place….
Interview with researchers Jim and Paddy Caldwell;
Turn on subtitles:
(at the bottom right, press the subtitle button, then click the settings = gear, click on English (or Spanish), then click on automatic translation and change to your language)
It is never 100% certain as far as the locations of the Exodus are concerned, but very
plausible, it all happened 3500 years ago. But a starting point is that Egypt had control over
the Sinai Peninsula because of the copper and turquoise mines up to +/- 106 AD when the
area was annexed by the Romans. That the Israelites went out of Egypt is therefore decisive in the report, just as Moses fled to Midian, east of the Gulf of Aqaba.
Why was Mount Sinai incorrectly identified before?
Apparently by the name Sinai and desert of Sinai. But there are deserts on both sides of the Aqaba Gulf. In the immediate vicinity of Mount Jebel al-Lawz, Mount Sinai, is also a desert.
The oldest location of the mountain came after a vision of the Byzantine Helena, the mother of the Roman emperor Constantine. Constantine issued in 313 AD the Edict of Milan, with which the Christians in the Roman Empire received freedom of religion.
His mother started to make an inventory of geographical locations of biblical events.
Mount Sinai on the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt does not have Israeli finds of 3500 years old and does not have a plain around it for a large camp, besides, it is a part of Egypt.
Saudi Arabia has been deliberately silent about the Jebel al-Lawz mountain for generations
and guards the important sites with fences, warning signs and guard houses. Researchers are not welcome and are deterred on the spot.
The plight of the Israelites for the Red Sea has a resemblance to the plight of Christians in the last hour. However, Christians are prepared and never have to despair:
NKJV (Luke 21:28) 28 Now when these things begin to happen, look up and lift up your
heads, because your redemption draws near.”
Faithful Christians will – like the Israelites at that time – be saved ‘in a wonderful way’.
So far this part about Islam, the antichrist or false prophet and the exodus from Egypt. In the next article we will treat the great Babylon, a real city.